What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thicknesses on steel, and how can they be avoided. PS
Dry film thickness measuring probably causes the most conversation/arguments on site than anything else, this is normally born out of the absence of an inspector test plan or no conversation/agreements with client/contractor/inspector.
Errors made during dry film testing are due to several reasons, including due to taking measurements before the paint or paint system is hard dry. A contractor will paint until the job for the day is done, and of course this will continue well into the afternoon, then the Inspector, or Supervisor will take a measurement with a dft gauge. If the paint is not ‘hard dry’, the probe will push into the coating giving an incorrect lower reading than may have been expected. Before taking a dft reading, ensure the paint is hard dry by pushing a fingernail into the paint. If the fingernail leaves a depression, then the paint is not hard dry. If of course no depression is left, then the paint is hard dry.
However, the most common error is not calibrating the measuring device to the same blast profile as the uncoated steel. Often this is not possible, so alternative calibration methods need to be used, as described below.
(1) Measure the blast profile before application of the paint, and after applying the system allow to become hard, then measure the dry film thickness using a digital gauge (or other). Then subtract the blast profile to give the true dft of the paint system. For example, if the steel surface has a typical profile after blasting of 50 microns, and the applied paint measures 300 microns, then then total dft is 250 microns (covering the peaks of the blast).
(2) Calibrate the dft gauge using a surface profile comparator to the expected surface profile, and then accept that the measured dft is the correct reading.
(3) Calibrate the gauge on a piece of smooth steel, then measure the dft of the paint, and subtract 50 microns as being the nominal blast profile.
Whatever method is used it must be agreed pre-contract and should be included in the inspection test plan. In the absence of a test plan, one should be created and accepted by all parties before painting commences, this prevents disagreements at a later stage.
Kevin Harold, Paintel Ltd
Dry Film Thickness or (DFT) is probably the single most important measurement made during inspection, or quality control of a protective coating application. Even the most basic coating specification will inevitably require the DFT to be measured, which is considered to be the most important factor determining the durability and longevity of a coating system. The thickness of each coating layer in a system, and the total system DFT will have to be measured and recorded to show that the specified system will meet the desired durability.
There are many mistakes which can be, and are often, made when measuring DFTs. Often its believed that it’s a case of simply putting a probe on a coated substrate and taking the measurement, and that’s where the numerous issues occur.
DFT is typically recorded with either a magnetic pull-off gauge (Banana gauge or Type 1) or an electro-magnetic constant pressure probe gauge (Type 2). Both these types of gauges are non-destructive (will not damage the protective coating during the inspection) and are the most commonly used methods for measurement of film thickness of protective coatings.
The Type I gauge works by recording the magnetic force needed to pull off the gauge from a ferrous substrate. Simply a barrier or a coating between the substrate and the gauge’s magnet reduces this magnetic attraction, which can then be measured i.e. the force required to pull the gauge magnet from the coated substrate is shown on the gauge as the film thickness of the coating material.
There are benefits in using a type 1 gauge, however there are often great challenges for an inspector with calibration, which has proved to cause major problems on projects. For example, determining the Base Metal Reading (BMR). For accurate calibration of Type I gauges the standard SSPC PA2 specifies that after calibration using a NIST test standard, or equivalent standard DFT shim with traceable calibration, that a measurement of the blast profile should be taken in order to achieve an accurate DFT reading as possible. This is not 100% accurate and can affect the resulting DFT reading. This BMR measurement is carried out on the blasted surface using the Type I gauge and which depicts an imaginary magnetic line in the blast profile This reading is always deducted from the final average reading of the DFT. This is typically done with a banana gauge or Type 1 DFT measuring gauge. Before use the BMR and NIST Standard deviation must be carried out and recorded, the inspector should always remember that the gauge should only be used on non-metallic coatings on a metallic or ferrous substrate.
However, the Type 1 gauge is ideal for use in environments where the use of electronic instruments is difficult, e.g. inflammable atmospheres in oil and gas production, and for underwater# dry film coating thickness inspection.
Type II gauges or the constant pressure probe gauge works by measuring changes in the magnetic flux within the probe of the gauge, the probe must remain in contact with the substrate during the reading or measuring process. The Inspector should be aware that the following may affect any readings taken.
• The magnet should be clean and free from surface contaminates such as iron or steel grits the inspector should also check the substrate is free of any contaminants which may adhere to the magnet prior and during DFT inspection.
• DFT readings should be taken only when the protective coating film is dry as if the coating is uncured or tacky the actual film will hold the magnet past the point when the magnet should have detached.
• The inspector should note that vibrations may cause the magnet to release prematurely resulting in a higher or inaccurate reading.
• Readings should generally not be taken within 25 mm or 1 inch of an edge as the magnetic fields in this area will interfere with the magnetic forces between the substrate and the gauge.
• Always ensure that you have a spare battery or a Type 1 Gauge for back up.
As with the Type 1 gauge, the Type 2 gauge must be calibrated with a traceable DFT shim on an uncoated area in order to account for the blast profile before any measurements are taken.
There are also other instruments used for DFT measurements, but which will damage the coating film. The most commonly used instruments are the Paint Inspection Gauges (PIG gauges) or Tooke gauge. These instruments are termed as destructive test methods due to the necessity to cut into the paint film to obtain the measurement.
A further issue with DFT measurements, and the one which causes the main issues on site is frequency of testing. The specification should always state the requirements for frequency of DFT measurements and film thickness acceptance criteria, or at the very least specify a standard to which DFT measurements should be carried out in accordance with. The number of measurements that will be made is important to all parties involved in coating works. The contractor and inspector obviously need to be in sync with requirements for such an imperative measurement and not to confuse one another in the field.
Lee Wilson, Corrtech Ltd