Working Day, Wednesday 29 April 2020
This one-day meeting was the latest in a series of working days held by the Corrosion Engineering Division. This year’s meeting had the theme of ‘Corrosion Control in Transport and Infrastructure’. Originally, it was planned that the meeting would be held at the fascinating conference venue at the National Railway Museum, York. However, due to the coronavirus lockdown, it was no longer possible to go ahead with a physical meeting and so the division held the meeting on-line using the Zoom platform (set up by the Institute), for the first ever on-line Institute of Corrosion symposium. The meeting was joined by ~60 corrosion engineers from around the world who had pre-registered for the meeting, including from India and New Zealand, despite the time zone differences. Nick Smart (Jacobs) chaired the meeting, which followed the published agenda and timetable. After the technical talks, the meeting divided into individual CED working groups, using the Zoom breakout room facility.
The first talk was given by Phillip Watkinson (Corrocoat) who presented ‘Fascinating Uses of Heavy Duty Glassflake Coatings in Transport Applications’. Phillip described the technical background to glass flake coatings and how they have developed over the years, initially from crude trowel- or brush-applied coatings, using predominantly polyester resins, through to spray-applied coatings using epoxy formulations, that can now be easily sprayed internally on pipes with diameters ranging from 50 mm to over 1 metre. Modern coatings can also be applied using an aerosol method. The methods for producing glass flake have evolved so that now it is possible to have close control over the thickness of the flake used (±1 µm) and to minimise the curvature in the glass flakes. Phillip highlighted the many desirable properties of glass flake coatings and illustrated their application in various industries, including their use on train axles, train air brakes, dip tanks for applying coatings to car bodies and a propeller shaft.
Chris Atkins (Mott MacDonald), presented the second talk entitled ‘Innovations in Preserving Transport Infrastructure’. This presentation focused on the ‘embodied energy’ concept of building materials, which can be applied when considering the amount of energy that is consumed in producing a range of building materials. It is important to take account of this factor in relation to achieving Net Zero carbon emissions by mid-century. By applying the ISO definitions of environmental conditions (ISO 9223) and the decrease in corrosion rate with time (ISO 9224), the approach taken is to evaluate the energy lost in allowing corrosion to take place for steel or galvanised steel, with coatings reapplied every 15 years over the life of a structure. By analysing the predicted energy consumption involved, it is possible to determine the relative energy efficiencies of various coating strategies, such as galvanising, depending on the corrosivity of the environment, the energy consumed in producing the initial material, and the availability of recycling facilities.
Steve Paterson (Arbeadie Consultants, 2019 Paul McIntyre award winner) presented the third talk on ‘Managing Corrosion in Ageing Offshore Infrastructures’. This talk summarised the background to the operation of existing North Sea offshore facilities beyond their original design life, with some structures predicted to be operating for 45 years or more. This can be compared with the operation of the Forth Rail bridge which was originally opened in 1890 and it still going strong because of ongoing maintenance regimes. The various considerations for extending the lifetimes of offshore installations were reviewed and the current guidance available from the Energy Institute was highlighted. Steve summarised the various ageing mechanisms that need to be considered in assessing future lifetimes and the following mechanisms were recognised as key current primary threats to facilities/pipelines: fabric degradation – external corrosion, corrosion under insulation, microbial corrosion, sand erosion and preferential weld corrosion. These corrosion issues were illustrated with a number of examples taken from field operations, followed by a discussion of future challenges, not least of which is the possible closure of facilities due to the current Covid-19 pandemic and the retention of the necessary technical skills within the workforce.
Turning from the oil and gas industry to the nuclear industry, Cliff Harris and Clive Harrison (both Jacobs) presented a talk entitled ‘Corrosion Monitoring of Dry Fuel Storage Containers in Nuclear Facilities’, which focused on the corrosion aspects of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel removed from the Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) at Sizewell. Spent nuclear fuel is moved from initial wet storage in ponds at the power station and placed into purpose-built dry storage facilities, because there is currently no geological disposal facility (GDF) available within the UK. The fuel is placed into a stainless steel multi-purpose canister (MPC), which is filled with inert gas, welded shut and then placed into a steel and concrete overpack. This system provides passive cooling through the use of convective air flow induced by the high operating temperature of the MPC, and has a planned storage life of up to 100 years. Corrosion studies have focussed on the possibility of atmospherically induced stress corrosion cracking due to the deposition of deliquescent sea salt particles. A corrosion evaluation test programme has involved the use of environmental monitoring combined with the construction of a full-size, fully monitored, MPC corrosion simulator, backed up by laboratory test programmes of SCC susceptibility under a range of test conditions and a study of the deliquescence properties of various deposited salt analogues.
Before the lunch break, Gareth Hinds (ICorr president) gave a ‘virtual’ presentation of the 2020 Paul McIntyre Award to Professor Carmen Andrade, who was located in Madrid, Spain (see report below), highlighting her many achievements in the field of applied corrosion science and corrosion engineering. Following the presentation, Professor Andrade gave a brief illustrated summary of her activities during her career and expressed how honoured she felt to receive the award.
The final talk of the day was given by Pablo Merino (CLH Pipeline Systems) entitled ‘A New CP Approach on Non-Isolated and Aged Pipelines: A Case Study’. The talk was concerned with the corrosion protection of the very large pipeline systems, extending for 10s of km, that support the UK infrastructure, for example for distributing aviation fuel. The presentation covered a review of the various options for manging an oversaturated CP system, which used an impressed current cathodic protection system. Inspections had shown that the pipeline was not achieving the require BS EN 12954 criteria, and that the coating was deficient in a number of areas. The remediation options considered included electrical isolation, coating rehabilitation, upgrading the CP system, and changing the CP criteria to a less restrictive one. The last of these was the only feasible one, backed up by the use of an external corrosion monitoring system, based on an electrical resistance corrosion rate measurement technique.
The final talk was followed by a set of parallel working group meetings for all the CED working groups, namely nuclear, coatings, oil and gas, cathodic protection and corrosion in concrete. At the end of the afternoon, Nick Smart thanked all the participants and contributors, and so ended the first on-line CED meeting. He looked forward to holding the next CED working day meeting at the National Railway Museum next Spring, pandemic permitting! Copies of the presentations will be put in the members area of the ICorr web site, together, where possible, with recordings of the presentations that were given.
Paul McIntyre Award
The winner of this year’s Paul McIntyre Award is Carmen Andrade. The announcement was made during the on-line CED meeting on 29 April, at which she also gave a short presentation.
Until her retirement, Dr Carmen Andrade was a Research Professor at the Institute of Construction Sciences “Eduardo Torroja” of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), working in the field of concrete durability and reinforcement corrosion. At present she is visiting Research Professor at the International Centre for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE). She is the author of numerous papers, has been editor of several books, and has supervised around 30 PhD theses. She has received several awards, including the R. N. Whitney Prize 2013 by NACE, Robert L’Hermite Medal 1987 from RILEM, “Manuel Rocha” of the Presidency of Portugal, and the “ALCONPAT Prize” in recognition her distinguished career. She is an honorary doctor of the University of Trondheim (Norway) and of the University Alicante (Spain). She has participated in several standardisation committees at National, European and International level and has been President of several international organisations related to her specialty (UEAtc, RILEM, WFTAO and the Liaison Committee which brings together the Associations: CIB, FIB, IABSE, IASS, RILEM and ECCE). At present she is also the President of ALCONPAT, the Latin American Association of Control of Quality, Pathology and Recovery of Structures. She has been General Director of Technology Policy of the Ministry of Education and Science, and advisor to the Secretary of State for Universities in the Ministry of Science and Innovation, Spain.
Stuart Lyon, ICorr President between 2005 and 2007, and who continued afterwards as CEO of CORREX Ltd until 2012, has been awarded the European Corrosion Medal for 2020. This is the most prestigious honour of the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) and recognises: “achievements by a scientist, or group of scientists, in the application of corrosion science in the widest sense”.
In a 35-year career at Manchester, Stuart has published over 200 papers, supervised over 60 PhD/MPhil research students and over 80 MSc and Undergraduate project students. He is a regular attendee of, and presenter at, EuroCorr, an organiser of EFC events (especially EuroCorr 2008 in Edinburgh) and active participant in EFC Working Parties – notably: WP4 (Nuclear Corrosion); WP6 (Surface Science & Mechanisms of Corrosion Protection); WP7 (Corrosion Education); WP8 (Physico-chemical Methods of Corrosion Testing); WP14 (Coatings). Since 2006 he has been
Editor-in-Chief of “Corrosion Science Engineering and Technology” an IoM3/EFC journal.
Over his career, he has worked with the energy sector (nuclear core materials, radwaste containers, and hydrocarbon applications in upstream and downstream) and helped to set up research partnerships at Manchester with the UK nuclear industry (the Materials Performance Centre – MPC), BP (the International Centre for Advanced Materials – ICAM), EdF Energy, and Airbus. Since 2012, he has led a strategic research partnership for AkzoNobel’s global corrosion protective coatings business applying innovative analytical and microscopy techniques to the study of paints and paint performance.
Stuart, who is AkzoNobel Professor of Corrosion Control at the University of Manchester, was recognised by the EFC Award Jury for his: “wide contribution and significant research particularly in the fields of atmospheric corrosion, corrosion protection by organic coatings as well as corrosion inhibition using emerging and novel analytical techniques for advancing the fundamental understanding of corrosion mechanisms. He is widely recognised as a corrosion scientist with an international scientific reputation at an academic level who, at the same time, has made a strong impact on industrial applications in corrosion and corrosion protection”.
Previous winners from the UK include Graham Wood (who established Manchester as a world-wide centre of excellence in corrosion research) in 1999 and Redvers Parkins in 1996. Graham and Redvers were also Past-Presidents of the Institution of Corrosion Science and Technology, the predecessor body of ICorr.
The presentation of the EFC Corrosion Medal Award Ceremony will be held in conjunction with the EUROCORR 2020 meeting, and will be followed by an acceptance address by Stuart.
During the COVID-19 induced lockdown, the use of social media has exploded. Numbers from The Institute of Corrosion’s social media accounts show that members are staying in touch and connected to their professional life as well as their personal.
Coronavirus has shown the world many things. One of these is that our human need to connect with others remains strong – and when we can’t interact in person, we’ll find other ways of doing so. From cave drawings to smoke signals to telegrams to telephones, we humans have always innovated new ways to interact remotely.
Of course, the world has moved on from smoke signals to social media as a preferred channel of communication, interaction, and information sharing. The unprecedented times in which we currently find ourselves has shown just how much we now rely on social media – and the Institute of Corrosion has not been left behind.
According to recent data from GobalWebindex, social media is a core activity of people in lockdown. Almost half of internet users say they are spending more time on their social media and on messaging services. More than a third are spending more time on mobile apps. Interestingly, now the social media bug has hit, one in five people expect to continue to spend more time on their social media after the COVID-19 outbreak has passed.
The Institute has been developing its social media this year. It can now be found on LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter (links to these sites can be found in the March/April Corrosion Management). Content includes blogs, news, and market information which is shared with the world. The Institute’s members are encouraged to become involved in the conversation about corrosion by posting on the Institute’s social media and sharing its content, and this is beginning to happen.
Our social media numbers are growing tremendously. For example, the number of members on the LinkedIn group page are up by around 15% this year, and moving toward 2,500. That’s a faster rate of growth than the LinkedIn platform itself has experienced. Its number of members has only increased by around 2.25% this year.
The Institute’s ambition of increasing global reach is being helped by its social media presence, too. When breaking down its audience, the number of visitors to the website – in large part driven by its social media and organic search – increased by around 9.5% in the last three months compared with the previous three months.
While the UK accounts for around a third of site visitors, the Institute’s new focus on digital communication channels is paying dividends around the globe. Visitor numbers from the Europe rose strongly, led by the Netherlands with a colossal increase of more than 25%. Visitors from the United States increased by a very impressive 15%. India was next on the list, with almost 13% more visitors than in the previous period, followed by Nigeria and UAE among others.
When the Institute rebranded, it rebranded its website simultaneously. The greater depth of content on the site now includes regular blogs, news, details of all training and certifications, and a members-only area with exclusive content. The efforts by all involved are being recognised by a growing audience.
Together with its improving social media presence and this magazine, the Institute of Corrosion is keeping a worldwide community in touch with all the latest news, views, and developments in corrosion. Additionally, it is providing new ways for you to develop your professional network through your membership of the Institute of Corrosion. Points that were noted at the recent Council meeting, in which a good deal of appreciation was expressed for the work of both the magazine and recent social media activity.
It has been tough time for everyone for a while now but hopefully by the time you read this, we will see the light at the end of the tunnel. Once guidance on easing the lockdown is clearer, Corrosion House will re-open, as will many other businesses. When this happens, an announcement regarding courses at Northampton will be placed on the CORREX website and emails sent to trainers and clients.
It is acknowledged that there is a backlog of replacement cards, and other information people are waiting for, but please be patient with Denise and her team at Head Office, as it may take some time to catch up.
We will be continuing to develop ICATS in the UK and overseas in the ensuing months and Kevin will be visiting clients when he can.
A reminder that there is a supply of ICATS, ICA black books, and Trainers should email Kevin (firstname.lastname@example.org) if they require copies of the book.
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I hope you are all well, and that the restrictions are not causing too many problems for work. One indirect effect the pandemic is having on the magazine is that with companies shut down or working with fewer staff, and Institute of Corrosion meetings also cancelled, then there are less news items is this issue than normal.
However, we still have three technical articles, covering, inspection and the expert witness, a novel method of monitoring Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI), and an introduction to Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC). There are also the two new columns, “Fellows Corner”, which this time covers Corrosion Monitoring and Inspection from Bill Hedges of BP, and “Ask the Expert”, in which the questions deal with salt contamination of steel, and impressed current CP of pipes. Remember to send your technical questions for answer by our industry experts.
If you have any comments or suggestions about the content of the magazine, please let me know, it is important that we are covering topics of interest to you the reader, remember it’s your magazine. Also send your technical articles for consideration to, email@example.com.
Keep yourselves and everyone safe.
Brian Goldie, Consulting Editor